Digital Sculpture Project: Caligula

Discovery and Modern History of the Richmond Caligula

Maria Grazia Picozzi

The discovery and modern history of the statue of Caligula, which the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts acquired in 1971 (The Arthur D. and Margaret Glasgow Fund, 71.20), can be largely reconstructed through a series of documents found in the Archives of the Colonna family of Rome, Italy.

I have studied the Colonna collection of antiquities for many years, and, in a 1990 volume by Filippo Carinci, Luisa Musso, the late Herbert Keutner and myself, I speculated that two letters preserved in the Colonna Archives might refer to the discovery of the Caligula statue in Richmond.[1] In fact, in 1968, when Hans Jucker correctly identified this remarkable sculpture as a portrait statue of Caligula (Jucker 1973, 16-25) , he also suggested that it corresponded to the statue listed as no. 1247 in F. Matz and F. von Duhn's Antike Bildwerke in Rom, who described it, around 1880, as being on the ground floor of the Colonna Palace (Matz-Duhn 1881 (I), 361-362, no.1247). Jucker also reported an oral communication made to him that the statue had been discovered near the Theater of Marcellus in Rome, although the letters of the Colonna Archives cast serious doubts upon this provenance.

The letters are dated 10 and 19 May 1825 and were sent from Marino by Francesco Pipini, who was probably the son of Antonio Pipini, Maestro di Casa (house manager) of the Colonna family in those years (figs. 1, 2).

Fig. 1 Archivio Colonna, Biblioteca del Monastero di S. Scolastica, Subiaco (AC), Patrimonio Artistico, 3. Letter sent to Don Vincenzo Colonna from Francesco Pipini, Marino, 10 May 1825.

Fig. 2 AC, Patrimonio Artistico, 3. Letter sent to Don Vincenzo Colonna from Francesco Pipini, Marino, 19 May 1825.

We will examine their texts later. As we see, the recipient is only addressed "Eccellenza" (Excellency), but we can deduce that he was Don Vincenzo Colonna (fig. 3), who was often referred to by this title, rather than Prince Aspreno Colonna, who became the head of the Colonna family from 1819 after the death of his uncle, Filippo III, who had no male heirs. Prince Aspreno usually resided in Naples and left the administration of his estates in Rome to his brother-in-law, Don Vincenzo, who had married the prince's sister, Chiara (fig. 4).[2] Vincenzo was also a Colonna, from a side branch of the family, and held important posts in Rome in many sectors of the administration of the Papal States and of the city; he was highly respected and was a close friend of Pope Pius IX.[3] Above all, Vincenzo was a man of great cultural interests, who had studied the history of the Colonnas in depth and was responsible for the initiative to excavate on Colonna lands along the Appian Way, near a site called "Le Frattocchie", where there were large peperino arches which can still be seen today. In 1823, Don Vincenzo invited Giuseppe Tambroni, an important scholar in contact with people in the literary and antiquarian world, to visit the site on the Appian Way where he was trying to excavate around significant remains from antiquity.

Fig. 3 Portrait of Don Vincenzo Colonna.

Fig. 4 Colonna Family tree: Prince Aspreno (1787-1847) and his sister Chiara, wife of Don Vincenzo Colonna ( from Colonna 2010, pl.18).

In an article published in Giornale Arcadico of the same year,[4] Giuseppe Tambroni recounts that he immediately recognized there the carceres of a circus (fig. 5), which he also identified as the circus of the city of Bovillae; despite the numerous references in historical and literary sources, Bovillae had not previously been located with certainty.[5] Tambroni took Luigi Poletti, an architect from Modena, to the site as well as other scholars (for example, Girolamo Amati, Salvatore Betti, and Filippo Agricola). It was the architect Poletti who identified the theater and other monuments and drafted the first plan of the remains. Tambroni died in 1824, and we know that in the following year Vincenzo Colonna wanted to start systematic excavations under the direction of Luigi Poletti himself.[6] The costs were paid by Don Vincenzo, as is documented in the Colonna Archives by a special item for expenses between 1825 and 1828 (fig. 6).

Fig. 5 Arches of the carceres of the Bovillae circus.

Fig. 6 AC, Riparto dei Pagamenti, 1825, no. 44 "Spese per li scavi alle Frattocchie nel territorio di Marino".

We learn that in 1825 the expenses for excavating at Frattocchie in the territory of Marino totaled 126 scudi and 15 baiocchi (mainly daily payments for the laborers); in 1826, 217.80 scudi were spent (the highest sum for these years); in 1827, 92.35 scudi; and in 1828, 185.30 scudi.[7] Other documentation informs us that during this same period, marbles and reliefs were transported to Rome from the Villa Colonna Bevilacqua, one of the Colonna villas in Marino. Although we do not have specific data about the provenance of these objects, some of them were considered to be from Bovillae and were set in the wall under the windows of the Gallery of the Colonna Palace in Rome (Picozzi 1990, 33, and nn. 243-244; see also Cat. nos. 97, 102, 119, 123, 135)

In this context we can place the letters of May 1825 from Francesco Pipini (figs. 1, 2), to whom Don Vincenzo evidently gave the responsibility to supervise the excavations in progress. The letter of 10 May refers to the discovery of "una statua della grandezza naturale mutilata della testa, e porzione delle braccia, e la punta del piede sinistro, e questa è vestita con l'abito talare tutta involta da cima, sino a piedi. Questa sembra di una buonissima scultura avendo un buon spartito di pieghe" ("a statue of natural size without the head, a portion of arms and the tip of the left foot, completely wrapped in a robe. This seems an extremely good sculpture with many well defined folds," fig. 7).

Fig. 7 AC, Patrimonio Artistico, 3. Letter sent to Don Vincenzo Colonna from Francesco Pipini, Marino, 10 May 1825: detail of the text.

The letter of 19 May announces the discovery of the head: "si è finalmente rinvenuta oggi la testa della statua, quale sarebbe tutta intiera, se non avesse porzione del naso corroso: questa rappresenta una fisionomia giovanile, e si è trovata molto lungi dal luogo dove giaceva la statua" ("today the head of the statue has finally been found, which would be complete were it not for part of the nose that has been corroded: it represents a youthful figure and was found a long way from the place where the statue was," fig. 8). Pipini also mentions the discovery of fragments of inscriptions, various marbles, and another head.[8] Despite the distance between the discovery of the body and head, the excavators had no doubt that they belonged together. The description of the sculpture corresponds to that of the statue that Matz and Duhn saw at Palazzo Colonna, and on this basis, as I said before, it has been supposed since 1990 that we could be dealing with the discovery of the Richmond Caligula.[9]

Fig. 8 AC, Patrimonio Artistico, 3. Letter sent to Don Vincenzo Colonna from Francesco Pipini, Marino, 19 May 1825: detail of the text.

Since then, further evidence has been located which fully confirms the provenance of the sculpture from Bovillae. However, as Granino observed (Granino 1991, 242, n. 11), architect Poletti also mentioned the statue found in 1825 in a short article in the Notizie del Giorno published in 1826 (fig. 9).

Fig. 9 Notizie del Giorno, no. 22, Roma, Giovedì, 1 giugno 1826.

Poletti affirms that he had started to dig in "un luogo dove sorgeva un denso cespuglio" ("a place where the undergrowth was thick"), discovering "gli avanzi di un grandissimo edificio, che per alcuni frammenti di fasti s'impara essere stato il Collegio de' Sacerdoti. Nello stesso luogo si giunse a trovare molti altri frammenti di lapidi, ed una statua di marmo bianco di grandissimo e largo panneggiamento, e di bella scultura romana, che a quel che ne pare sembra un'immagine di Augusto. La sua grandezza è maggiore del naturale, e le pieghe vi sono condotte con finissima squisitezza d'arte" ("the remains of an extremely large building, which, because of some fragments of a fasti, could have been the collegium of priests. Many other stone fragments were also found in the same place and also a white marble statue with very large, wide drapery in fine Roman style, which seems to be an image of Augustus. It is larger than natural size, and the folds have been executed with exquisitely fine art") (Poletti 1826, 1). Poletti also records the discovery there of a bust of an unknown young man[10] and other materials: the fragments of significant inscriptions found with the statue are those of fasti of the sodales augustales claudiales, which were transferred to the Colonna Garden in Rome. Some of them, that have been studied by the epigraphist Maria Grazia Granino (Granino 1991, 240-259), are no longer in the garden but have been relocated for protection inside the palace.

The topographical problems connected with these finds have been entrusted to Paolo Liverani, who has recently found new important evidence for a more precise location of the 1825 excavations.[11] As to the statue, the Colonna Archives contains another important document: a manuscript regarding the fief of Marino, probably attributed to Don Vincenzo Colonna himself, who wrote it many years later around the middle of the nineteenth century. On page twenty-one of this volume (Platee 2, Marino), we read a brief history of the discovery, with some mistakes (the statue was not found in 1823, but in 1825, and it was not believed to be Lucius Verus); most importantly, a note alongside this passage informs us that the statue was placed on the ground floor in the Stanze del Pussino ("Pussino Rooms") and is no. 169 in the "catalogo degli oggetti di scultura" by the sculptor Pietro Tenerani (fig. 10).

Fig. 10 AC, Platee 2, Marino, p. 21, detail.

In 1848, Tenerani compiled an inventory with an estimate of the sculptures subject to Colonna's trusteeship, ordered by Giovanni Andrea Colonna, the son and heir of Aspreno Colonna, who died in 1847 (for this inventory (AC, III QB 32/A) Picozzi 2010, 82-84, 363-366 (Doc. IV)). Entry no. 169 in the Pussino Rooms is listed as a statue of a "Console", valued at 350 scudi (fig. 11).

Fig. 11 Inventory with the estimate of the Colonna ancient sculptures by Pietro Tenerani, 1848. Detail regarding no. 169, "Console".

The numbering of the Tenerani inventory is reported in a "Catalogo delle opere d'arte soggette a vincolo fidecommissario" ("catalogue of works of art subject to the trustee"), another manuscript preserved in the Colonna Archives (fig. 12), which contains extensive descriptions of the sculptures (AC, III QB 32/B). This catalogue has not been precisely dated but belongs to the years between the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century because it refers to every sculpture and refers to the related number of Matz-Duhn, whose work had meanwhile been published (there is no difficulty in equating number 169 in the catalogue with no. 1247 of Matz-Duhn).

Fig. 12 AC, III QB 32/B. "Catalogo delle opere d'arte soggette a vincolo fidecommissario": no.169 "console"= no.1247 of Matz-Duhn.

Having eliminated all doubt, we can add some interesting information related to the restoration of the statue.[12] Additional research in the Riparti di pagamento (payments section) of the Colonna Archives in the years following the discovery of the statue has permitted us to find a series of payments in 1843 for the restoration of the statue "trovata alle Frattocchie" ("found at Frattocchie"). The statue was transferred to the studio of sculptor Tuccimei, who was entrusted with the restoration work (AC, Riparto dei pagamenti 1841-1843, n. 24 (1843); Uscita del Maestro di Casa, 1843, s.v. Tuccimei scultore (see fig. 13)). The total price, 80 scudi, was paid in three installments between August and September 1843 and completed in November.

Fig. 13 AC, Uscita del Maestro di Casa, 1843: "Tuccimei scultore".

These payments to Tuccimei confirm that the numbers found carved on the left forearm (Abbe 2010, 2. See also the symposium contribution of Mark Abbe) during the 2010 examination of the statue in Richmond must be read as "1843." The sculptor Tuccimei is Raffaele Tuccimei (1812-1849),[13] a pupil of Canova, who lived only 37 years and, in 1843, was at the height of his career. He is remembered above all for winning the 1839 prize in the Concorso Balestra at the San Luca Academy (Lupinacci 2002, 402) and for several important portrait busts. The statue remained in the sculptor's studio for two years and was only taken back to the Palazzo Colonna in 1845 (AC, Riparto dei pagamenti 1844-46, no.103 (1845)). In the same years, we have documentary evidence for the refurbishing of the ground floor rooms where busts and other sculptures of the collection would have been displayed together with the statue of the "Console". As we have seen, in 1848 the Tenerani inventory lists the statue among the sculptures of the Stanze del Pussino on the ground floor, like Matz-Duhn (today this apartment is called the "Princess Isabelle Apartment," fig. 14). The statue was almost certainly located in the room now called "Sala della Fontana", in which we can see many splendid frescoes from various periods. The rooms acquired their traditional name because at the time of the Tenerani inventory, some of the seventeenth century frescoes were thought to be by Gaspard Dughet, brother-in-law of Nicolas Poussin, known as "the Pussino."[14]

Fig. 14 Rome, Palazzo Colonna, Princesse Isabelle Apartment, "Sala della Fontana" (Photo Archivio Galleria Colonna, Roma).

The sculpture probably remained in the Colonna Palace until around the end of the second decade of the twentieth century, or shortly after. This can be inferred from an undated note, added in red pencil, to the mid-nineteenth century manuscript mentioned above, probably by Don Vincenzo Colonna himself (fig. 10). Referring to statue no. 169 of the Tenerani inventory, the note specifies: "Prestato a D. Vittoria Caetani d.ssa di Sermoneta. Sta per lo Scalone del Palazzo Sermoneta a Monte Savello" ("Lent to Donna Vittoria Caetani, Duchess of Sermoneta. It is on the main stairs of the Palazzo Sermoneta at Monte Savello") (AC, Platee 2, Marino, p. 21).

Thus, the statue left the Palazzo Colonna when it was "lent" to Donna Vittoria Caetani, Duchess of Sermoneta. Donna Vittoria (1880-1954) came from the Colonna family and was the daughter of Marcantonio (1844-1912), the eldest son of Giovanni Andrea (1820-1894) and brother of Fabrizio and Prospero. Vittoria's father, having no male heirs, left the palace with the art collections to his nephew Marcantonio (1881-1947), Vittoria's cousin, who married Isabelle Sursock (1889-1984). Marcantonio and Isabelle were the grandparents of the present owners of the Palazzo.[15] Vittoria Colonna was educated in England and in 1901 married Leone Caetani ( who later became an important orientalist),[16] a member of a family which had often been in strong conflict with the Colonnas since the Middle Ages. The marriage was not happy: Vittoria did not like life in gloomy Palazzo Caetani. She was vivacious and passionate, as is clear from the recently recounted story of her brief and intense relationship with the futurist painter Umberto Boccioni (Caracciolo Chia 2008).

Fig. 15 Colonna Family tree: Vittoria Colonna (1880-1954), wife of Leone Caetani di Sermoneta (1869-1935) (from Colonna 2010, pl. 23).

On the death of her father-in-law, Onorato Caetani, in 1917, Vittoria was given a new house from her husband. She chose a famous palace, owned by the Orsini family since the eighteenth century, which Baldassarre Peruzzi had built on the Teatro di Marcello for the Savelli family in the first decades of the sixteenth century (fig. 16).[17] Vittoria lived there from around 1920, while Leone, who had formed a new family, left Rome in 1921 to move permanently to Canada. Vittoria personally managed the furnishing of her new home, and she loved to receive her friends there, members of aristocracy, artists, and both Italian and foreign politicians. A photograph published in a volume of her memoirs (fig. 17)[18] shows the Gallery of the Palace, where we can just recognize two marble busts and a head, belonging to the collections of the Caetani family since the seventeenth century.[19] As we can see, these sculptures were used to decorate Vittoria's Gallery. It is likely that the Colonna family had lent the statue of the "Console" located on the main stairs to Vittoria for the same purpose.

Fig. 16 Rome, Palazzo Orsini, built on the Theater of Marcellus.

Fig. 17 Rome, Palazzo Orsini, Gallery in Vittoria Colonna's time (from Colonna 1937).

Some time after Vittoria's death, the Caetani sculptures must have been returned to the family since they are now in Palazzo Caetani in via delle Botteghe Oscure;[20] however, the statue of the "Console" never came back to Palazzo Colonna.[21] We can suppose that it remained in Palazzo Orsini at least as long as Vittoria was alive, but we have not so far been able to reconstruct its history from Vittoria's day until 1968, when H. Jucker examined and studied the statue with the Swiss antiquarian, Jeannette Brun, in Zürich.

It is now clear how the oral tradition reported by Jucker of a provenance from Rome "in the neighborhood of the Theater of Marcellus" was born. In fact, the statue found at Bovillae remained for several years in the Orsini Palace built on the Theater of Marcellus. The story of this statue should come as no surprise to people involved in the history of antiquity collections, which is closely connected to the modern history of illustrious families and sometimes determined by unpredictable situations.


M. Abbe, "The togatus statue of Caligula in the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts: An Archaeological Description", Workshop draft Nov. 16. 2010, 2.

G. Bianconi, "Biografia di Don Vincenzo Colonna," in Giornale Arcadico LV, 1868, 1-27 (from the offprint).

D. Borghese, Visita a Palazzo Colonna, Roma 2009.

M. Caracciolo Chia, Una parentesi luminosa. L'amore segreto fra Umberto Boccioni e Vittoria Colonna, Milano 2008.

F. Carinci, "Il XVII secolo. Formazione di una raccolta", in F. Carinci, H. Keutner, L. Musso, M.G.Picozzi, Catalogo della Galleria Colonna in Roma. Sculture, Roma 1990, 18-26.

F.Carinci, H.Keutner, L.Musso, M.G.Picozzi, Catalogo della Galleria Colonna in Roma. Sculture, Roma 1990.

L. Ceccarelli, E. Marroni, Repertorio dei Santuari del Lazio, Archaeologia Perusina, VI, Roma 2011.

P. Ciancio Rossetto, Theatrum Marcelli, in Lexicon Topographicum Urbis Romae, V (ed. M. Steinby), 31-35.

V. Colonna di Sermoneta, Memorie, Milano 1937.

P. Colonna, I Colonna. Sintesi storico illustrativa, Roma 2010.

G.G. Fox, s.v. Poletti, Luigi, in The Dictionary of Art (ed. J. Turner), 25, 1996, 147.

F. Francescangeli, "La consistenza attuale della raccolta Caetani con una nota su due ritratti femminili", in Palazzo Caetani. Storia, arte, cultura (L. Fiorani ed.), Roma 2007, 303-312.

P.Ghione, V.Sagaria Rossi, L'Archivio di Leone Caetani 2004 all'Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Roma 2004, 501-520.

M.G. Granino, "Nuovi documenti epigrafici da Bovillae", in Miscellanea greca e romana XVI, Roma 1991, 239-259.

H. Jucker, "Caligula", in Arts in Virginia 13, 1973, 16-25.

S. Lupinacci, "I concorsi dell'Accademia di San Luca negli anni 1835-1851," in P. Picardi, P. P. Racioppi (edd.), Le 'scuole mute' e le 'scuole parlanti'. Studi e documenti sull'Accademia di San Luca nell'Ottocento, Roma 2002.

F. Matz, F. von Duhn, Antike Bildwerke in Rom, I, Leipzig 1881.

A. Negro, "La collezione dei dipinti e il gusto artistico dei Caetani dal Cinquecento al Seicento. Una selezione", in Palazzo Caetani. Storia, arte, cultura (L. Fiorani ed.), Roma 2007, 193-236.

A. Pancotti, "La scoperta e l'interpretazione dei resti monumentali di Bovillae", in Colli Albani. Protagonisti e luoghi della ricerca archeologica nell'Ottocento (M. Valenti ed., Catalogue of the exhibition), Frascati 2011, 178-184.

M. G. Picozzi, "I marmi della Galleria: l'arredo scultoreo dall'inizio del XVIII secolo", in F. Carinci, H. Keutner, L. Musso, Catalogo della Galleria Colonna in Roma. Sculture, Roma 1990, 26-34.

M. G. Picozzi, "La collezione di antichità: le raccolte dei Caetani sino al XVIII secolo", in Palazzo Caetani. Storia, arte, cultura (L. Fiorani ed.), Roma 2007, 267-282.

M.G.Picozzi (ed.), Palazzo Colonna. Appartamenti. Sculture antiche e dall'antico, Roma 2010.

C. Pietrangeli, Guide Rionali di Roma, Rione XI-S. Angelo, Roma 1971.

L. Poletti, Notizie del Giorno 22, 1 giugno 1826, 1-2.

A.M. Riccomini, Il viaggio in Italia di Pietro De Lama. La formazione di un archeologo in età neoclassica, Pisa 2003.

G. Tambroni, "Intorno alcuni edificii ora riconosciuti dell'antica città di Boville", in Giornale arcadico di scienze, lettere, ed arti XVIII, 1823, 371-428.

G. Tambroni, "Intorno alcuni edificii ora riconosciuti dell'antica città di Boville", in DissPontAc III, 1929, 119-182.


[1]Picozzi 1990, 56, n. 242; also now Picozzi 2010, 40 and 84. The letters are preserved in the Archivio Colonna, Biblioteca del Monastero di S. Scolastica, Subiaco (AC), Patrimonio artistico 3. I would like to thank Don Prospero Colonna and the Administration of Palazzo Colonna for allowing me to publish some photographs from the Colonna Archives; I am also very grateful to Don Romano di Cosmo and Elia Mariano for some information.

[2]For a family tree of the Colonna family, see Colonna 2010, 273-300; the people mentioned appear on pl.18.

[3]For Don Vincenzo Colonna, see in particular Bianconi 1868, 1-27 (offprint).

[4]Tambroni 1823, 371-428, and Tambroni 1829, 119-182 (reprint). Tambroni dedicated his paper to Pietro De Lama, an important antiquarian and director of the Royal Museum of Antiquities in Parma: see Riccomini 2003, 53.

[5]For the identification of the site and the excavations, see the contribution of Paolo Liverani. A short entry on Bovillae in Ceccarelli, Marroni 2011, 95-100, with bibliography; for the history of the research on Bovillae throughout the nineteenth century, see also Pancotti 2011.

[6]Poletti 1826, 1-2. In general, on the architect Poletti, see Fox 1996, 147, with bibliography, but add Luigi Poletti 1992: see also the contribution of Paolo Liverani.

[7]AC, Riparto dei pagamenti 1825-1829, no.44 (1825), no.51 (1826), no. 52 (1827), no. 40 (1828). For a detailed account of July the 15th, 1826 (the 217.80 scudi sum corresponds with the sum registered in Riparto dei pagamenti of 1826): AC, III KB 6, n.32. The Riparto dei pagamenti 1838-1840 indicates under no. 62 (1838) a payment of only 19.65 scudi for "opere impiegate negli scavi di Bovillae, e Casa Rossa," evidently a payment for further occasional and limited excavation.

[8]Carinci 1990, 126-128, no.68, tentatively suggested the identification of this head with a youthful head in the Colonna collection.

[9]See above, n.1.

[10]Poletti (1826, 1) mentions a bust of a youth, not a head: so the Carinci hypothesis (see n. 8) seems less convincing.

[11]See the contribution of Paolo Liverani, this volume, with a discussion of the evidence emerging from Poletti's unpublished sketchbook on these excavations. The manuscript provides a more precise location of the findings, while the letters from F. Pipini provide the precise dates in which the statue and the head were found (the statue at the beginning of the excavations, the head nine days later).

[12]First of all it is interesting to observe that the description of the "Console" no. 169 in the catalogue mentioned above also indicates restorations. See document quoted at n. 19, no.169: "Statua in marmo greco (?) rappresentante un romano togato in atto di camminare avanzando la sin. e piantando nella medesima. La toga fa bellissime pieghe e i due umboni[?] , il braccio destro è abbassato, il braccio sin. avanzato. Ai piedi calza delle scarpe rilegate sopra la tenie [?]. La testa è aggiuntata al corpo con un pezzo di collo moderno ma può appartenere alla statua; rappresenta un uomo sbarbato ancora giovane tipo del I sec. dell'Impero. La scultura è bellissima specialmente pel trattamento della stoffa. Sono di restauro il naso, le orecchie, parte della nuca, il braccio destro fino alla metà dell'omero, mano e polso sin. e un pezzo del piede sin con qualche lembo qua e là della toga rifatto in gesso". ("Statue in Greek marble (?) representing a Roman togatus in the act of walking advancing with and resting on his left foot. The toga has beautiful folds and two umbones [?]; the right arm is lowered, the left arm is advanced. On the feet are shoes tied above the tenie [?]. The head is joined to the body with a piece of modern neck but may well belong to the statue, which represents a young, beardless man typical of the first century of the empire. The sculpture is very beautiful, especially the treatment of the drapery. The nose, the ears, part of the back of the neck, half of the right arm up to the humerus, the left hand and wrist have been restored. And a piece of the left foot with an occasional patch on the toga made of plaster"). The restoration corresponds with that indicated by Matz-Duhn (but in Matz-Duhn restoration of the ears is omitted).

[13]Thieme –Becker XXX, III,1939, s.v. Tuccimei Raffaele, 469; see also the website of the Tuccimei family at

[14]The frescoes have been reattributed to Crescenzio Onofri, but another room of the apartment was decorated by Dughet: Borghese 2009, 21-22. For the ancient sculptures today in the Sala della Fontana, see E. Fileri , A.M. Rossetti, M. G. Picozzi, in Picozzi 2010, pp. 108-149.

[15]Colonna 2010, 221-224, 239-252, pl.23 of the genealogical tree.

[16]For a biographical profile of Leone Caetani, see Ghione - Sagaria Rossi 2004, 501-520.

[17]Colonna 1937, 269-273; Pietrangeli 1971, 16-18; on the ancient monument, see Ciancio Rossetto 1999, pp.31-35.

[18]Colonna 1937, pl. between 273 and 274 (Vittoria' s memoirs were first published in English under the title Things Past in 1929).

[19]In general on the seventeenth-century collection of the Caetani, see Picozzi 2007, 267-282, with earlier bibliography.

[20]The three sculptures now in Palazzo Caetani are the following: the bust we can see in the foreground in the photograph of the Palazzo Orsini Gallery, on the console on the right, is the bust of Onorato IV Caetani (who was with Marcantonio Colonna at the victory in the naval battle of Lepanto in 1571): see Negro 2007, 204. The female bust we barely see on the left, on another console, is still unpublished: see Francescangeli 2007, 306, n.82 . The head on a column framed by a door in the back wal of the room is of Caetani Aphrodite (see Picozzi 2007, 280, 282).

[21]It may be pointed out that in the "Elenco Sculture" of the Colonna collection included in "Decreto del Ministro della Pubblica Istruzione, 25 novembre 1947" (Picozzi 2010, p.399), n. 169 of the Tenerani inventory does not refer to the Richmond statue (which was no longer in the Colonna Palace), but to another togatus statue (Decr. MPI 1947, n.159) displayed in the Colonna Gallery (Musso, in Catalogo Colonna 1990, pp. 247-250, n.134).

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